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24 ways to impress your friends

Boost Your Hyperlink Power

There are HTML elements and attributes that we use every day. Headings, paragraphs, lists and images are the mainstay of every Web developer’s toolbox. Perhaps the most common tool of all is the anchor. The humble a element is what joins documents together to create the gloriously chaotic collection we call the World Wide Web.

Anatomy of an Anchor

The power of the anchor element lies in the href attribute, short for hypertext reference. This creates a one-way link to another resource, usually another page on the Web:

<a href="">

The href attribute sits in the opening a tag and some descriptive text sits between the opening and closing tags:

<a href="">Drew McLellan</a>

“Whoop-dee-freakin’-doo,” I hear you say, “this is pretty basic stuff” – and you’re quite right. But there’s more to the anchor element than just the href attribute.

The Theory of relativity

You might be familiar with the rel attribute from the link element. I bet you’ve got something like this in the head of your documents:

<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" media="screen" href="styles.css" />

The rel attribute describes the relationship between the linked document and the current document. In this case, the value of rel is “stylesheet”. This means that the linked document is the stylesheet for the current document: that’s its relationship.

Here’s another common use of rel:

<link rel="alternate" type="application/rss+xml" title="my RSS feed" href="index.xml" />

This describes the relationship of the linked file – an RSS feed – as “alternate”: an alternate view of the current document.

Both of those examples use the link element but you are free to use the rel attribute in regular hyperlinks. Suppose you’re linking to your RSS feed in the body of your page:

Subscribe to <a href="index.xml">my RSS feed</a>.

You can add extra information to this anchor using the rel attribute:

Subscribe to <a href="index.xml" rel="alternate" type="application/rss+xml">my RSS feed</a>.

There’s no prescribed list of values for the rel attribute so you can use whatever you decide is semantically meaningful. Let’s say you’ve got a complex e-commerce application that includes a link to a help file. You can explicitly declare the relationship of the linked file as being “help”:

<a href="help.html" rel="help">need help?</a>

Elemental Microformats

Although it’s completely up to you what values you use for the rel attribute, some consensus is emerging in the form of microformats. Some of the simplest microformats make good use of rel. For example, if you are linking to a license that covers the current document, use the microformat:

Licensed under a <a href="" rel="license">Creative Commons attribution license</a>

That describes the relationship of the linked document as “license.”

The microformat goes a little further. It uses rel to describe the final part of the URL of the linked file as a “tag” for the current document:

Learn more about <a href="" rel="tag">semantic markup</a>

This states that the current document is being tagged with the value “Microformats.”

, which stands for XHTML Friends Network, is a way of describing relationships between people:

<a href="" rel="friend">Drew McLellan</a>

This microformat makes use of a very powerful property of the rel attribute. Like the class attribute, rel can take multiple values, separated by spaces:

<a href="" rel="friend met colleague">Drew McLellan</a>

Here I’m describing Drew as being a friend, someone I’ve met, and a colleague (because we’re both Web monkies).

You Say You Want a revolution

While rel describes the relationship of the linked resource to the current document, the rev attribute describes the reverse relationship: it describes the relationship of the current document to the linked resource. Here’s an example of a link that might appear on help.html:

<a href="shoppingcart.html" rev="help">continue shopping</a>

The rev attribute declares that the current document is “help” for the linked file.

The microformat makes use of the rev attribute to allow you to qualify your links. By using the value “vote-for” you can describe your document as being an endorsement of the linked resource:

I agree with <a href="" rev="vote-for">Richard Dawkins</a>.

There’s a corresponding vote-against value. This means that you can link to a document but explicitly state that you don’t agree with it.

I agree with <a href="" rev="vote-for">Richard Dawkins</a>
about those <a href="" rev="vote-against">creationists</a>. 

Of course there’s nothing to stop you using both rel and rev on the same hyperlink:

<a href="" rev="vote-for" rel="muse">Richard Dawkins</a>

The Wisdom of Crowds

The simplicity of rel and rev belies their power. They allow you to easily add extra semantic richness to your hyperlinks. This creates a bounty that can be harvested by search engines, aggregators and browsers. Make it your New Year’s resolution to make friends with these attributes and extend the power of hypertext.

About the author

Jeremy Keith lives in Brighton, England where he makes websites with the splendid design agency Clearleft. You may know him from such books as DOM Scripting, Bulletproof Ajax, HTML5 For Web Designers, Resilient Web Design, and, most recently, Going Offline.

He curated the dConstruct conference for a number of years as well as Brighton SF, and he organised the world’s first Science Hack Day. He also made the website Huffduffer to allow people to make podcasts of found sounds—it’s like Instapaper for audio files.

Hailing from Erin’s green shores, Jeremy maintains his link to Irish traditional music running the community site The Session. He also indulges a darker side of his bouzouki-playing in the band Salter Cane.

Jeremy spends most of his time goofing off on the internet, documenting his time-wasting on, where he has been writing for over fifteen years.

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